tomcat构建及session保持

3年前 (2016-08-12) Jason Liu 运维 0评论 已收录 315℃

Tomcat是开放源码的web应用服务器。可以处理像asp,php,cgi,jsp等Apache不能处理的动态页面,但在处理静态资源能力不如Apache服务器,所以通常与Apache在同一台服务器上集成,形成一个可以同时高效处理动静资源的web服务器。

Tomcat组件:

顶级组件:Server

服务类:Service

连接器:http,https,ajp

容器类:Engine,Host,Context

被嵌套的组件:valve(访问控制),logger(日志),realm(用户认证),loader(加载                器),manager(管理器)

集群类组件:listener(侦听器)

 


Tomcat安装

(1)系统自带的openjdk+tomcat

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[[email protected] ~]# yum install -y java-1.7.0-openjdk.x86_64 java-1.7.0-openjdk-devel.x86_64

修改环境变量,使其被系统应用:

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[[email protected] ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/java.sh

wKioL1biw3PxSjHRAAAJWatckxQ966.png

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[[email protected] ~]# exec bash                #重读bash,取代之前的bash
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[[email protected] ~]# yum -y install tomcat.noarch tomcat-webapps.noarch tomcat-admin-webapps.noarch tomcat-lib.noarch               #安装tomcat及相应组件

这时可以通过systemctl start tomcat.service开启tomcat服务

(2)使用Oracle JDK和tomcat主站提供的编译完成的程序包

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[[email protected] ~]# rpm -ivh jdk-8u25-linux-x64.rpm

修改环境变量,使其被系统应用:

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[[email protected] ~]# vim /etc/profile.d/java.sh

wKioL1bixkPzdlkWAAAQaHpeHZY180.png

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[[email protected] ~]#   exec bash                #重读bash,取代之前的bash 
[[email protected] ~]#  tar xf apache-tomcat-8.0.23.tar.gz -C /usr/local
[[email protected] ~]#  cd /usr/local
[[email protected] ~]#  ln -sv apache-tomcat-8.0.23 tomcat  #创建tomcat软链接
[[email protected] ~]#  vim /etc/profile.d/tomcat.sh      #修改环境变量

wKiom1bixvXyL5uTAAARO4qHV9o462.png

添加tomcat脚本

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#!/bin/bash
#
JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest
CATALINA_BASE=/usr/local/tomcat
PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin:$CATALINA_BASE/bin:$PATH
export JAVA_HOME CATALINA_BASE PATH
case $1 in
start)
  exec $CATALINA_BASE/bin/catalina.sh start
  ;;
stop)
  exec $CATALINA_BASE/bin/catalina.sh stop
  ;;
restart)
  $CATALINA_BASE/bin/catalina.sh stop
  sleep 2
  exec $CATALINA_BASE/bin/catalina.sh start
  ;;
*)
  echo "Usage: `basename $0` (start|stop|restart)"
  exit 1
  ;;
esac

这时可以通过systemctl start tomcat.service开启tomcat服务


Tomcat目录结构

bin:存放各种平台下启动和关闭Tomcat的脚本文件

lib:存放Tomcat服务器和所有web应用需要的jar包

conf:Tomcat的各种配置文件,最重要的是server.xml

logs:存放Tomcat的日志文件

webapps:web应用的默认部署目录

temp:临时文件目录

Tomcat配置文件

server.xml:主配置文件

context.xml:每个webapp都可以专门的配置文件,这些配置文件通常位于webapp程序目录下的     WEB-INF目录中,用于定义会话管理,JDBC等;conf/context.xml是为各webapp提供             默认配置

web.xml:每个webapp只在部署之后才能被访问;此文件则用于为各webapp定义默认的部署操作方     式

tomcat-users.xml:用户认证的账号和密码配置文件

catalina.policy:当使用-security选项来启动tomcat实例时会读取此配置文件来实现基于安全     策略的运行方式

catalina。properties:java属性的定义文件,用于设定类加载器路径等,以及一些与JVM性能相     关的调优参数

logging-properties:日志系统相关的配置


手动添加一个测试应用程序

(1)创建webapp特有的目录结构

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[[email protected] ~]#  mkdir -pv myapp/{classes,lib,WEB-INF,META-INF}

(2)提供webapp的测试页面

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[[email protected] ~]#  vim myapp/index.jsp

wKioL1bizQ-zA1nQAAAkBpzSayI449.png


构建LNMT

Client --> http --> Nginx --> reverse_proxy (http) --> tomcat (http connector)

 

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location /  {
    proxy_pass                  #nginx反向代理
}

 

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location ~* \.(jsp|do)$ {
    proxy_pass                  #nginx动静分离
}

构建LAMT

Client --> http --> httpd --> reverse_proxy_module (http) --> tomcat (http connector)

Client --> http --> httpd --> reverse_proxy_module (ajp) --> tomcat (ajp connector)

第一种方式:proxy_module, proxy_http_module

第二种方式:proxy_module, proxy_ajp_module

(1) 第一种方式的配置机制,使用虚拟主机

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<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName tc1.yl.com
    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyVia On
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy *>
        Require all granted
    </Proxy>
    ProxyPass / http://localhost:8080/
    ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:8080/
    <Location />
        Require all granted
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

(2)

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<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName tc1.yl.com
    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyVia On
    ProxyPreserveHost On
    <Proxy *>
        Require all granted
    </Proxy>
    ProxyPass / ajp://localhost:8080/
    ProxyPassReverse / ajp://localhost:8080/
    <Location />
        Require all granted
    </Location>
</VirtualHost>

Tomcat会话保持

(1)session sticky

①source ip

②cookie

(2)session cluster

(3)session server

①kv:memcached,redis

方法一:(1)apache通过mod_proxy,mod_proxy_http,mod_proxy_balancer;

tomcat通过http connector

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Header add Set-Cookie "ROUTEID=.%{BALANCER_WORKER_ROUTE}e; path=/" env=BALANCER_ROUTE_CHANGED
<proxy balancer://lbcluster1>
    BalancerMember http://172.16.50.100:8080 loadfactor=10 route=TomcatA
    BalancerMember http://172.16.50.103:8080 loadfactor=10 route=TomcatB
    ProxySet stickysession=ROUTEID
</proxy>
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName web1.magedu.com
    ProxyVia On
    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
        <Proxy *>
            Require all granted
        </Proxy>
    ProxyPass / balancer://lbcluster1/
    ProxyPassReverse / balancer://lbcluster1/
        <Location />
            Require all granted
        </Location>
</VirtualHost>

 

(2)apache通过mod_proxy,mod_proxy_ajp,mod_proxy_balancer;

tomcat通过ajp connector

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Header add Set-Cookie "ROUTEID=.%{BALANCER_WORKER_ROUTE}e; path=/" env=BALANCER_ROUTE_CHANGED
<proxy balancer://lbcluster1>
    BalancerMember ajp://172.16.50.100:8080 loadfactor=10 route=TomcatA
    BalancerMember ajp://172.16.50.103:8080 loadfactor=10 route=TomcatB
    ProxySet stickysession=ROUTEID
</proxy>
<VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName web1.magedu.com
    ProxyVia On
    ProxyRequests Off
    ProxyPreserveHost On
        <Proxy *>
            Require all granted
        </Proxy>
    ProxyPass / balancer://lbcluster1/
    ProxyPassReverse / balancer://lbcluster1/
        <Location />
            Require all granted
        </Location>
</VirtualHost>

 

(3)apache通过mod_jk

tomcat通过ajp connector

①反向代理

模块配置文件:mod_jk.conf

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LoadModule  jk_module  modules/mod_jk.so
JkWorkersFile  /etc/httpd/conf.d/workers.properties
JkLogFile  logs/mod_jk.log
JkLogLevel  debug
JkMount  /*  TomcatA
JkMount  /status/  stat1

workers配置文件:worker.properties

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worker.list=TomcatA,stat1
worker.TomcatA.port=8009
worker.TomcatA.host=172.16.50.100
worker.TomcatA.type=ajp13
worker.TomcatA.lbfactor=1
worker.stat1.type = status

②负载均衡

模块配置文件:mod_jk.conf

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LoadModule  jk_module  modules/mod_jk.so
JkWorkersFile  /etc/httpd/conf.d/workers.properties
JkLogFile  logs/mod_jk.log
JkLogLevel  debug
JkMount  /*  lbcluster1
JkMount  /status/  stat1

workers配置文件:workers.properties

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worker.list = lbcluster1,stat1
worker.TomcatA.type = ajp13
worker.TomcatA.host = 172.16.50.100
worker.TomcatA.port = 8009
worker.TomcatA.lbfactor = 1
worker.TomcatB.type = ajp13
worker.TomcatB.host = 172.16.50.103
worker.TomcatB.port = 8009
worker.TomcatB.lbfactor = 1
worker.lbcluster1.type = lb
worker.lbcluster1.sticky_session = 0
worker.lbcluster1.balance_workers = TomcatA, TomcatB
worker.stat1.type = status

方法二:Session Cluster

构建步骤:

(1)各节点配置使用deltamanager

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<Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"
                 channelSendOptions="8">
  <Manager className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.DeltaManager"
          expireSessionsOnShutdown="false"
          notifyListenersOnReplication="true"/>
  <Channel className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.GroupChannel">
      <Membership className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.membership.McastService"
                  address="228.0.1.7"
                  port="45564"
                  frequency="500"
                  dropTime="3000"/>
      <Receiver className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.NioReceiver"
                  address="auto"
                  port="4000"
                  autoBind="100"
                  selectorTimeout="5000"
                  maxThreads="6"/>
       <Sender className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.ReplicationTransmitter">
       <Transport className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.transport.nio.PooledParallelSender"/>
       </Sender>
       <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.TcpFailureDetector"/>
       <Interceptor className="org.apache.catalina.tribes.group.interceptors.MessageDispatch15Interceptor"/>
       </Channel>
       <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.ReplicationValve"
                 filter=""/>
       <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.JvmRouteBinderValve"/>
       <Deployer className="org.apache.catalina.ha.deploy.FarmWarDeployer"
                 tempDir="/tmp/war-temp/"
                 deployDir="/tmp/war-deploy/"
                 watchDir="/tmp/war-listen/"
                 watchEnabled="false"/>
       <ClusterListener className="org.apache.catalina.ha.session.ClusterSessionListener"/>
       </Cluster>

(2)为需要使用session cluster的webapps开启session distribution的功能

WEB-INF/web.xml中添加:<distributable/>

方法三:构建session server(通过memcached)

下载如下jar文件至各tomcat节点的tomcat安装目录下的lib目录中,其中的${version}要换成你所 需要的版本号,tc${6,7,8}要换成与tomcat版本相同的版本号。

memcached-session-manager-${version}.jar

memcached-session-manager-tc${6,7,8}-${version}.jar

spymemcached-${version}.jar

msm-javolution-serializer-${version}.jar

javolution-${version}.jar

 

分别在两个tomcat上的某host上定义一个用于测试的context容器,并在其中创建一个会话管理器,如下所示

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<Context path="/test" docBase="/usr/local/tomcat/webapps/test" reloadable="true">
    <Manager className="de.javakaffee.web.msm.MemcachedBackupSessionManager"
        memcachedNodes="n1:172.16.50.101:11211,n2:172.16.50.102:11211"
        failoverNodes="n1"
        requestUriIgnorePattern=".*\.(ico|png|gif|jpg|css|js)$"
        transcoderFactoryClass="de.javakaffee.web.msm.serializer.javolution.JavolutionTranscoderFactory"
     />
</Context>

在172.16.50.104上配置反向代理的负载均衡内容,类似如下所示:

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<Proxy balancer://tomcat>
    BalancerMember  http://172.16.50.100:8080 loadfactor=1
    BalancerMember  http://172.16.50.103:8080 loadfactor=1
    ProxySet  lbmethod=byrequests
</Proxy>
ProxyVia Off
ProxyRequests Off
ProxyPass / balancer://tomcat/
ProxyPassReverse / balancer://tomcat/
<Proxy *>
    Request all granted
</Proxy>
<Location />
    Request all granted
</Location>

分别为两个context提供测试页面

tomcatA

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<%@ page language="java" %>
<html>
  <head><title>TomcatA</title></head>
  <body>
    <h1><font color="red">TomcatA.magedu.com</font></h1>
    <table align="centre" border="1">
      <tr>
        <td>Session ID</td>
    <% session.setAttribute("magedu.com","magedu.com"); %>
        <td><%= session.getId() %></td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <td>Created on</td>
        <td><%= session.getCreationTime() %></td>
     </tr>
    </table>
  </body>
</html>

tomcatB

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<%@ page language="java" %>
<html>
  <head><title>TomcatB</title></head>
  <body>
    <h1><font color="blue">TomcatB.magedu.com</font></h1>
    <table align="centre" border="1">
      <tr>
        <td>Session ID</td>
    <% session.setAttribute("magedu.com","magedu.com"); %>
        <td><%= session.getId() %></td>
      </tr>
      <tr>
        <td>Created on</td>
        <td><%= session.getCreationTime() %></td>
     </tr>
    </table>
  </body>
</html>

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